researchers have created an electronic skin that can be completely recycled. The e-skin can also heal itself if it’s torn apart.The device, described today in the journal Science Advances, is basically a thin film equipped with sensors that can measure pressure, temperature, humidity, and air flow. The film is made of three commercially available compounds mixed together in a matrix and laced with silver nanoparticles: when the e-skin is cut in two, adding the three compounds to the “wound” allows the e-skin to heal itself by recreating chemical bonds between the two sides. That way, the matrix is restored and the e-skin is as good as new. If the e-skin is broken beyond repair, it can just be soaked in a solution that “liquefies” it so that the materials can be reused to make new e-skin. One day, this electronic skin could be used in prosthetics, robots, or smart textiles.
Bacteria are able to do everything from breaking down toxins to synthesizing vitamins. When they move, they create strands of a material called cellulose that is useful for wound patches and other medical applications. Until now, bacterial cellulose could only be grown on a flat surface — and few parts of our body are perfectly flat. In a paper published today in Science Advances, researchers created a special ink that contains these living bacteria. Because it is an ink, it can be used to 3D print in shapes — including a T-shirt, a face, and circles — and not just flat sheets.
Bacterial cellulose is free of debris, holds a lot of water, and has a soothing effect once it’s applied on wounds. Because it’s a natural material, our body is unlikely to reject it, so it has many potential applications for creating skin transplants, biosensors, or tissue envelopes to carry and protect organs before transplanting them.
The amount of research on skin synthesis and augmentation is surprising. H+ is capturing a lot of articles about it.
Biointegrated sensors can address various challenges in medicine by transmitting a wide variety of biological signals. A tempting possibility that has not been explored before is whether we can take advantage of genome editing technology to transform a small portion of endogenous tissue into an intrinsic and long-lasting sensor of physiological signals. The human skin and epidermal stem cells have several unique advantages, making them particularly suitable for genetic engineering and applications in vivo. In this report, we took advantage of a novel platform for manipulation and transplantation of epidermal stem cells, and presented the key evidence that genome-edited skin stem cells can be exploited for continuous monitoring of blood glucose level in vivo. Additionally, by advanced design of genome editing, we developed an autologous skin graft that can sense glucose level and deliver therapeutic proteins for diabetes treatment. Our results revealed the clinical potential for skin somatic gene therapy.
To make their biological invention, Wu and team first collected from mice some of the stem cells whose job it is to make new skin. Next, they used the gene-editing technique CRISPR to create their built-in glucose detector. That involved adding a gene from E. coli bacteria whose product is a protein that sticks to sugar molecules.
Next, they added DNA that produces two fluorescent molecules. That way, when the E. coli protein sticks to sugar and changes shape, it moves the fluorescent molecules closer or further apart—generating a signal that Wu’s team could see using a microscope.
All that was done in a lab dish—so next the team tested whether the glucose-sensing cells could be incorporated into a mouse’s body by grafting the engineered skin patches onto their backs. When mice who were left hungry were suddenly given a big dose of sugar, Wu says, the cells reacted within 30 seconds. Measuring glucose this way was just as accurate as a blood test, which they also tried.
researchers in China have developed a new type of user-interactive electronic skin, with a colour change perceptible to the human eye, and achieved with a much-reduced level of strain. Their results could have applications in robotics, prosthetics and wearable technology.
…the study from Tsinghua University in Beijing, employed flexible electronics made from graphene, in the form of a highly-sensitive resistive strain sensor, combined with a stretchable organic electrochromic device.
Thin-film electronic devices can be integrated with skin for health monitoring and/or for interfacing with machines. Minimal invasiveness is highly desirable when applying wearable electronics directly onto human skin. However, manufacturing such on-skin electronics on planar substrates results in limited gas permeability. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically investigate their long-term physiological and psychological effects.
As a demonstration of substrate-free electronics, here we show the successful fabrication of inflammation-free, highly gas-permeable, ultrathin, lightweight and stretchable sensors that can be directly laminated onto human skin for long periods of time, realized with a conductive nanomesh structure. A one-week skin patch test revealed that the risk of inflammation caused by on-skin sensors can be significantly suppressed by using the nanomesh sensors.
Furthermore, a wireless system that can detect touch, temperature and pressure is successfully demonstrated using a nanomesh with excellent mechanical durability. In addition, electromyogram recordings were successfully taken with minimal discomfort to the user.
scientists have created a super-thin wearable that can record data through skin. That would make this wearable, which looks like a stylish gold tattoo, ideal for long-term medical monitoring — it’s already so comfortable that people forgot they were wearing it.
Most skin-based interfaces consist of electronics embedded in a substance, like plastic, that is then stuck onto the skin. Problem is, the plastic is often rigid or it doesn’t let you move and sweat. In a paper published today in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, scientists used a material that dissolves under water, leaving the electronic part directly on the skin and comfortable to bend and wear.
Electronic skin (E-skin), a popular research topic at present, has achieved significant progress in a variety of sophisticated applications. However, the poor sensitivity and stability severely limit the development of its application. Here, we present a facile, cost-effective, and scalable method for manufacturing E-skin devices with bionic hierarchical microstructure and microcracks. Our devices exhibit high sensitivity (10 kPa–1) and excellent durability (10 000 cycles). The synergistic enhancement mechanism of the hierarchical microstructure and the microcracks on the conductive layers was discovered. Moreover, we carried out a series of studies on the airflow detection and the noncontact speech recognition.
And four of the smartest people that I’ve ever met — Ed Boyden, Hugh Herr, Joe Jacobson, Bob Lander — are working on a Center for Extreme Bionics. And the interesting thing of what you’re seeing here is these prosthetics now get integrated into the bone. They get integrated into the skin. They get integrated into the muscle. And one of the other sides of Ed is he’s been thinking about how to connect the brain using light or other mechanisms directly to things like these prosthetics. And if you can do that, then you can begin changing fundamental aspects of humanity. So how quickly you react to something depends on the diameter of a nerve. And of course, if you have nerves that are external or prosthetic, say with light or liquid metal, then you can increase that diameter and you could even increase it theoretically to the point where, as long as you could see the muzzle flash, you could step out of the way of a bullet. Those are the order of magnitude of changes you’re talking about.
The TED Talk only briefly mentions this aspect, but it’s worth watching to have an idea of the most prominent scientists working on human body augmentation technologies today.
CTRL-Labs’ work is built on a technology known as differential electromyography, or EMG. The band’s inside is lined with electrodes, and while they’re touching my skin, they measure electrical pulses along the neurons in my arm. These superlong cells are transmitting orders from my brain to my muscles, so they’re signaling my intentions before I’ve moved or even when I don’t move at all.
EMG is widely used to measure muscle performance, and it’s a promising option for prosthetic limb control. CTRL-Labs isn’t the first company to imagine an EMG-based interface, either. Canadian startup Thalmic Labs sells an EMG gesture-reading armband called the Myo, which detects muscle movements and can handle anything from controlling a computer to translating sign language. (CTRL-Labs used Myo armbands in early prototyping, before designing its own hardware.)
One issue is interference from what Bouton refers to as motion artifacts. The bands have to process extraneous data from accidental hand movements, external vibrations, and the electrodes shifting around the skin. “All those things can cause extra signal you don’t want,” he says. An electrode headset, he notes, would face similar problems — but they’re serious issues for either system.
Reardon says CTRL-Labs’ band can pick out far more precise neural activity than the Myo, which Thalmic bills as a muscle-reading system rather than a brain-computer interface. And the band is supposed to work consistently anywhere on the wrist or lower arm, as long as it’s fitted snugly. (The prototype felt like wearing a thick, metallic elastic bracelet.) But Bouton, who uses EMG to find and activate muscles of people with paralysis, says users would get the best results from hitting exactly the same spot every time — which the average person might find difficult. “Even just moving a few millimeters can make a difference,” he says
Long, fascinating profile of CTRL-Labs. I saw them presenting in NYC at the O’Reilly AI Conference, when they announced the availability of their wristband within this years.
3D printing is performed by telling a computer to apply layer upon layer of a specific material (quite often plastic or metal powders), molding them one layer at a time until the final product — be it a toy, a pair of sunglasses or a scoliosis brace — is built. Medical technology is now harnessing this technology and building tiny organs, or “organoids,” using the same techniques, but with stem cells as the production material. These organoids, once built, will in the future be able to grow inside the body of a sick patient and take over when an organic organ, such as a kidney or liver, fails.
researchers in Spain have now taken the mechanics of 3D printing — that same careful layer-upon-layer approach in which we can make just about anything — and revealed a 3D bioprinter prototype that can produce human skin. The researchers, working with a biological ink that contains both human plasma as well as material extracts taken from skin biopsies, were able to print about 100 square centimeters of human skin in the span of about half an hour.
A 3D-printed pill, unlike a traditionally manufactured capsule, can house multiple drugs at once, each with different release times. This so-called “polypill” concept has already been tested for patients with diabetes and is showing great promise.
3Dynamic Systems is currently developing a range of 3D bioprinted vascular scaffold as part of its new product line. We have been developing 3D bioprinting as a research tool since 2012 and have now pushed forward with the commercialisation of the first 3D tissue structures. Called the vascular scaffold, it is the first commercial tissue product to be developed by us. 3DS research has accelerated recently and work is now focussing on the fabrication of heterogeneous tissues for use in surgery.
Currently we manufacture 20mm length sections of bioprinted vessels, which if successful will lead to larger and more complex vessels to be bioprinted in 3D. Our research concentrates on using the natural self-organising properties of cells in order to produce functional tissues.
At 3DS, we have a long-term goal that this technology will one day be suitable for surgical therapy and transplantation. Blood vessels are made up of different cell types and our new Omega allows for many types of cells to be deposited in 3D. Biopsied tissue materials is gathered from a host, with stem cells isolated and multiplied. These cells are cultured and placed in a bioreactor, which provides oxygen and other nutrients to keep them alive. The millions of cells that are produced are then added to our bioink and bioprinted into the correct 3D geometry.
Over the next two years we will begin the long road towards the commercialisation of our 3D bioprinted vessels. Further development of their technology will harness tissues for operative repair and in the short-term tissues for pharmaceutical trials. This next step in the development of this process could one day transform the field of reconstructive medicine which may lead to direct bioengineering replacement human tissues on-demand for transplantation.
The next opportunity for our research is in developing organ on a chip technology to test drugs and treatments. So far we have initial data based on our vascular structures. In the future this method may be used to analyse any side-effects of new pharmaceutical products.
3Dynamic Systems building 3D bioprinters that automatically produce 3D tissue structures. The company also build perfusion bioreactors that test tissue structures over periods of months for the effects of stimulation and the test the influence of drugs on 3D cell behaviour.
Normally, I don’t quote the website of companies working in the field of research and commercial application covered by H+. But these guys followed @hplus on Twitter without asking for any coverage and have a crystal clear website. I wish more companies were like this.
One of the inspirations for Vintiner’s journey into this culture was Professor Kevin Warwick, deputy vice-chancellor at Coventry University, who back in 1998 was the first person to put a silicon chip transponder under his skin (that enabled him to open doors and switch on lights automatically as he moved about his department) and to declare himself “cyborg”. Four years later Warwick pioneered a “Braingate” implant, which involved hundreds of electrodes tapping into his nervous system and transferring signals across the internet, first to control the movements of a bionic hand, and then to connect directly and “communicate” with his wife, who had a Braingate of her own.
In some ways Warwick’s work seemed to set the parameters of the bodyhacking experience: full of ambition, somewhat risky, mostly outlawed. The Braingate system is now being explored in America to help some patients suffering paralysis, but Warwick’s DIY work has not been widely taken up by either mainstream medicine, academia or commercial tech companies. He and his wife remain the only couple to have communicated “nervous system to nervous system” through pulses that it took six weeks for their brains to “hear”.
While this segment is the most interesting, the whole article is a long and fascinating journey into the biohacking counter-culture.
Targeted motor and sensory reinnervation (TMSR) is a surgical procedure on patients with amputations that reroutes residual limb nerves towards intact muscles and skin in order to fit them with a limb prosthesis allowing unprecedented control. By its nature, TMSR changes the way the brain processes motor control and somatosensory input; however the detailed brain mechanisms have never been investigated before and the success of TMSR prostheses will depend on our ability to understand the ways the brain re-maps these pathways.
a patient fitted with a TMSR prosthetic “sends” motor commands to the re-innervated muscles, where his or her movement intentions are decoded and sent to the prosthetic limb. On the other hand, direct stimulation of the skin over the re-innervated muscles is sent back to the brain, inducing touch perception on the missing limb.
Neuroprosthetics research in amputee patients aims at developing new prostheses that move and feel like real limbs. Targeted muscle and sensory reinnervation (TMSR) is such an approach and consists of rerouting motor and sensory nerves from the residual limb towards intact muscles and skin regions. Movement of the myoelectric prosthesis is enabled via decoded electromyography activity from reinnervated muscles and touch sensation on the missing limb is enabled by stimulation of the reinnervated skin areas. Here we ask whether and how motor control and redirected somatosensory stimulation provided via TMSR affected the maps of the upper limb in primary motor (M1) and primary somatosensory (S1) cortex, as well as their functional connections.
Functional connectivity in TMSR patients between upper limb maps in M1 and S1 was comparable with healthy controls, while being reduced in non-TMSR patients. However, connectivity was reduced between S1 and fronto-parietal regions, in both the TMSR and non-TMSR patients with respect to healthy controls. This was associated with the absence of a well-established multisensory effect (visual enhancement of touch) in TMSR patients. Collectively, these results show how M1 and S1 process signals related to movement and touch are enabled by targeted muscle and sensory reinnervation. Moreover, they suggest that TMSR may counteract maladaptive cortical plasticity typically found after limb loss, in M1, partially in S1, and in their mutual connectivity. The lack of multisensory interaction in the present data suggests that further engineering advances are necessary (e.g. the integration of somatosensory feedback into current prostheses) to enable prostheses that move and feel as real limbs.
Vizor is a sort of eyewear with clear glasses. But it can also project your patient’s spine in 3D so that you can locate your tools in real time even if it’s below the skin. It has multiple sensors to detect your head movements as well.
Hospitals first have to segment the spine from the rest of the scan, such as soft tissue. They already have all the tools they need to do it themselves.
Then, doctors have to place markers on the patient’s body to register the location of the spine. This way, even if the patient moves while breathing, Vizor can automatically adjust the position of the spine in real time.
Surgeons also need to put markers on standard surgical tools. After a calibration process, Vizor can precisely display the orientation of the tools during the operation. According to Augmedics, it takes 10-20 seconds to calibrate the tools. The device also lets you visualize the implants, such as screws.
Elimelech says that the overall system accuracy is about 1.4mm. The FDA requires a level of accuracy below 2mm.
Remarkable, but hard to explain in words. Watch the video.
Venter and colleagues at his company Human Longevity, Inc. (HLI), based in San Diego, California, sequenced the whole genomes of 1,061 people of varying ages and ethnic backgrounds. Using the genetic data, along with high-quality 3D photographs of the participants’ faces, the researchers used an artificial intelligence approach to find small differences in DNA sequences, called SNPs, associated with facial features such as cheekbone height. The team also searched for SNPs that correlated with factors including a person’s height, weight, age, vocal characteristics and skin colour.
The approach correctly identified an individual out of a group of ten people randomly selected from HLI’s database 74% of the time. The findings, according to the paper, suggest that law-enforcement agencies, scientists and others who handle human genomes should protect the data carefully to prevent people from being identified by their DNA alone.
The scientific community, including a co-author (who works for Apple), suggests that the paper misrepresented the data.
The point is that we are going in that direction and the progress is remarkable. The scientist reviewing the paper for Nature said:
HLI’s actual data are sound, and he is impressed with the group’s novel method of determining age by sequencing the ends of chromosomes, which shorten over time.
With this technology, we can convert skin cells into elements of any organ with just one touch. This process only takes less than a second and is non-invasive, and then you’re off. The chip does not stay with you, and the reprogramming of the cell starts. Our technology keeps the cells in the body under immune surveillance, so immune suppression is not necessary,” said Sen, who also is executive director of Ohio State’s Comprehensive Wound Center.
TNT technology has two major components: First is a nanotechnology-based chip designed to deliver cargo to adult cells in the live body. Second is the design of specific biological cargo for cell conversion. This cargo, when delivered using the chip, converts an adult cell from one type to another, said first author Daniel Gallego-Perez, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering and general surgery who also was a postdoctoral researcher in both Sen’s and Lee’s laboratories.
TNT doesn’t require any laboratory-based procedures and may be implemented at the point of care. The procedure is also non-invasive. The cargo is delivered by zapping the device with a small electrical charge that’s barely felt by the patient.
Others who’d taken Basis before me had described effects including fingernail growth, hair growth, skin smoothness, crazy dreams, increased stamina, better sleep, and more energy. Once I began taking it, I did feel an almost jittery uptick in mojo for a few days, and I slept more soundly as well. Then those effects seemed to recede, and there were also mornings where I felt a little out of it. If these were placebo effects, they were weird ones, because they didn’t make me feel better, only different.
Because the two active compounds in Basis, pterostilbene and NR, are natural (occurring in blueberries and milk, respectively) and have long been available separately as supplements, Elysium has been able to skip the FDA gauntlet and sell its capsules immediately.
The agility that comes with bypassing federal regulation has an obvious cost: Guarente and his advisory board are the only scientific credibility Elysium can claim. The company stresses that it is using only compounds supported by hundreds of peer-reviewed papers, that it enforces high manufacturing standards, and that it is conducting a human trial (currently 120 people between the ages of 60 and 80 are participating).
but most importantly
A large number of men who have made fortunes in Silicon Valley believe so — or at least are trying to recast aging as merely another legacy system in need of recoding. Oracle co-founder Larry Ellison’s Ellison Medical Foundation has spent more than $400 million on aging research. In 2013, Alphabet’s Larry Page announced a moonshot life-extension project called Calico, and XPrize founder Peter Diamandis partnered with genome sequencer J. Craig Venter to found a competing company called Human Longevity Inc. Paul F. Glenn, an 85-year-old venture capitalist who watched his grandfather die of cancer, launched an aging-science foundation more than 50 years ago that has since funded a dozen aging-research centers around the country. Peter Thiel is 37 years Glenn’s junior but equally desperate to find a death cure: He has given at least $3 million to the Methuselah Foundation, the research vehicle for the extravagantly bearded, Barnumesque immortality promoter Aubrey de Grey. Thiel has also said he takes a daily dose of human growth hormone, and he was reported to have seriously explored the transfusion of blood from the young to the old.
Still, the prevailing notion that Wolfram|Alpha is a form of cheating doesn’t appear to be dissipating. Much of this comes down to what homework is. If the purpose of homework is build greater understanding of concepts as presented in class, Joyce is adamant that teachers should view Wolfram|Alpha as an asset. It’s not that Wolfram Alpha has helped students “‘get through’ a math class by doing their homework for them,” he says, “but that we helped them actually understand what they were doing” in the first place. Dixon believes that Wolfram|Alpha can build confidence in students who don’t see themselves as having mathematical minds. Homework isn’t really about learning to do a calculation, but rather about learning to find and understand an answer regardless of how the calculation is executed.
That’s the route down which education appears to be headed. Once upon a time, education was all about packing as much information as possible into a human brain. Information was limited and expensive, and the smartest people were effectively the deepest and most organized filing cabinets. Today, it’s the opposite.“The notion of education as a transfer of information from experts to novices—and asking the novices to repeat that information, regurgitate it on command as proof that they have learned it—is completely disconnected from the reality of 2017,” says David Helfand, a Professor of Astronomy at Columbia University.
- Will AI make humans smarter or dumber?
- How is this different from a surgeon using AI-powered AR goggles to perform surgery?
Near the end of 2017 we’ll be consuming content synthesised to mimic real people. Leaving us in a sea of disinformation powered by AI and machine learning. The media, giant tech corporations and citizens already struggle to discern fact from fiction. And as this technology is democratised it will be even more prevalent.
Preempting this we prototyped a device worn on the ear and connected to a neural net trained on real and synthetic voices called Anti AI AI. The device notifies the wearer when a synthetic voice is detected and cools the skin using a thermoelectric plate to alert the wearer the voice they are hearing was synthesised: by a cold, lifeless machine.