Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes

From http://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/pdfExtended/S1550-4131(16)30355-2:

Ketosis, the metabolic response to energy crisis, is a mechanism to sustain life by altering oxidative fuel selection. Often overlooked for its metabolic potential, ketosis is poorly understood outside of starvation or diabetic crisis. Thus, we studied the biochemical advantages of ketosis in humans using a ketone ester-based form of nutrition without the unwanted milieu of endogenous ketone body production by caloric or carbohydrate restriction.

In five separate studies of 39 high-performance athletes, we show how this unique metabolic state improves physical endurance by altering fuel competition for oxidative respiration. Ketosis decreased muscle glycolysis and plasma lactate concentrations, while providing an alternative substrate for oxidative phosphorylation. Ketosis increased intramuscular triacylglycerol oxidation during exercise, even in the presence of normal muscle glycogen, co-ingested carbohydrate and elevated insulin. These findings may hold clues to greater human potential and a better understanding of fuel metabolism in health and disease.

A drink made of pure Ketone could boost the body more than carbs, fat and protein

From Scientists think they’ve discovered a fourth type of fuel for humans — beyond carbs, fat, and protein | The Independent

To make the product, HVMN leveraged more than a decade and $60 million worth of scientific research through an exclusive partnership with Oxford University.

Most of the food we eat contains carbs. The carbs in fruit come from naturally occurring sugars; those in potatoes, veggies, and pasta come from starch. They’re all ultimately broken down into sugar, or glucose, for energy.

When robbed of carbs, the body turns to fat for fuel.

In the process of digging into its fat stores, the body releases molecules called ketones. A high-fat, low-carb diet (also known as a ketogenic diet) is a shortcut to the same goal.

Instead of going without food, someone on the keto diet tricks the body into believing it is starving by snatching away carbohydrates, its primary source of fuel.

This is why as long as you’re not eating carbs, you can ramp up your intake of fatty foods like butter, steak, and cheese and still lose weight. The body becomes a fat-melting machine, churning out ketones to keep running.

If you could ingest those ketones directly, rather than starving yourself or turning to a keto diet, you could essentially get a superpower.

That performance boost is “unlike anything we’ve ever seen before,” said Kieran Clarke, a professor of physiological biochemistry at Oxford who’s leading the charge to translate her work on ketones and human performance into HVMN’s Ketone.

HVMN: Our core belief is that the human is a system that can be quantified, optimized, and upgraded.

From Nootrobox is now HVMN – THINKING

what does it means to be human in a future molded by automation, robots, and artificial intelligences ?


Our core belief is that the human is a system that can be quantified, optimized, and upgraded. Like any system (regardless of its origin as biological, mechanical, or computational), the human has inputs and outputs. HVMN develops inputs into the human system to optimize for key biometrics including cognitive, physical, and metabolic output.

While our rhetoric and our techniques may be modern, the fundamental human drive to improve oneself is not. The same instincts that drove Egyptian pharaohs, Spanish conquistadors, and Chinese emperors to seek enhancement drive modern biohackers.

Andreessen Horowitz is backing this startup. Worth watching.